Naegleria fowleri

The brain Eating Amoeba

The one from watering holes

Long Story short

Amoeba eats brain cells

catch in watering holes

via nose


Naegleria fowleri

Naegleria fowleri, colloquially known as a “brain-eating amoeba“, is a species of the genus Naegleria, belonging to the phylum Percolozoa, which is technically not classified as a true amoeba, but a shapeshifting amoeboflagellate excavate.[1] It is a free-living, bacteria-eating microorganism that can be pathogenic, causing an extremely rare, sudden, severe, and usually fatal brain infection called naegleriasis or primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM).[2] This microorganism is typically found in bodies of warm freshwater,[3] such as ponds, lakes,[4] rivers, hot springs,[5] warm water discharge from industrial or power plants,[6] geothermal well water,[7] poorly maintained or minimally chlorinated (under 0.5 mg/m3 residual) swimming pools,[8] water heaters,[9] soil, and pipes connected to tap water.[10] It can be seen in either an amoeboid or temporary flagellate stage.[11]


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Naegleria fowleri

Naegleria fowleri is a type of single-celled, free-living amoeba that can be found in warm freshwater, soil, and even poorly maintained swimming pools and hot tubs. It is commonly referred to as the “brain-eating amoeba” because, in rare cases, it can enter the human body through the nose and migrate to the brain, causing a severe and usually fatal infection called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM).

PAM is extremely rare, but it is also very serious. Symptoms usually appear within 1-9 days of infection and include headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, and a stiff neck. As the infection progresses, it can cause confusion, seizures, hallucinations, and coma. Unfortunately, PAM is almost always fatal, with only a few known cases of survival.

It is important to note that Naegleria fowleri cannot be transmitted from person to person, and it is not a risk if you drink contaminated water. It only poses a risk if contaminated water enters your nose, allowing the amoeba to enter your body. The risk of infection can be reduced by avoiding activities in warm freshwater, using nose clips or holding your nose shut when swimming in warm freshwater, and keeping swimming pools and hot tubs clean and properly maintained.


Florida man dies after contracting brain-eating infection from rinsing sinuses with tap water

“A man in south Florida died from a brain-eating infection last month after using tap water during sinus rinses, according to FOX 4.“A man in south Florida died from a brain-eating infection last month after using tap water during sinus rinses, according to FOX 4.

The man, who has not been named but was identified as a resident of Charlotte County, died on Feb. 20, three days before the county health department issued a public alert about the infection.

DOH-Charlotte reported one case involving Naegleria fowleri, a microscopic single-celled living amoeba, on Feb. 23. The department said infection is rare and can only happen when water contaminated with the amoeba enters through the nose, stressing that it cannot be contracted by drinking tap water”




On the basis of the laboratory evidence and case reports, heroic doses[27] of amphotericin B have been the traditional mainstay of PAM treatment since the first reported survivor in the United States in 1982.[4]

Treatment has often also used combination therapy with multiple other antimicrobials in addition to amphotericin, such as fluconazole, miconazole, rifampicin and azithromycin. They have shown limited success only when administered early in the course of an infection.[28] Fluconazole is commonly used as it has been shown to have synergistic effects against naegleria when used with amphotericin in-vitro.[4]

While the use of rifampicin has been common, including in all four North American cases of survival, its continued use has been questioned.[4] It only has variable activity in-vitro and it has strong effects on the therapeutic levels of other antimicrobials used by inducing cytochrome p450 pathways.[4]

In 2013, two successfully treated cases in the United States utilized the medication miltefosine.[3] As of 2015, there was no data on how well miltefosine is able to reach the central nervous system.[4] As of 2015 the U.S. CDC offered miltefosine to doctors for the treatment of free-living amoebas including naegleria.[3] In one of the cases, a 12-year-old female, was given miltefosine and targeted temperature management to manage cerebral edema that is secondary to the infection. She survived with no neurological damage. The targeted temperature management commingled with early diagnosis and the miltefosine medication has been attributed with her survival. On the other hand, the other survivor, an 8-year-old male, was diagnosed several days after symptoms appeared and was not treated with targeted temperature management; however, he was administered the miltefosine. He suffered what is likely permanent neurological damage.[3]

In 2016, a 16-year-old boy also survived PAM. He was treated with the same protocols of the 12-year-old girl in 2013. He recovered making a near complete neurological recovery; however, he has stated that learning has been more difficult for him since contracting the disease.[3][29]

In 2018, a 10-year-old girl in the Spanish city of Toledo became the first person to have PAM in Spain, and was successfully treated using intravenous and intrathecal amphotericin B.[30]

A 2023 study has discovered that the treatment (with usage of benzoxaboroles) of infected mice significantly prolonged survival and showed a 28% cure rate without relapse.[31][32]


Origin and evolution of the worldwide distributed pathogenic amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri


Naegleria fowleri, a worldwide distributed pathogen, is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Because it is such a fulminant disease, most patients do not survive the infection. This pathogen is a free-living amoeboflagellate present in warm water. To date, it is well established that there are several types of N. fowleri, which can be distinguished based on the length of the internal transcribed spacer 1 and a one bp transition in the 5.8S rDNA. Seven of the eight known types have been detected in Europe. Three types are present in the USA, of which one is unique to this country. Only one of the eight types occurs in Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) and Japan. In mainland Asia (India, China and Thailand) the two most common types are found, which are also present in Europe and the USA. There is strong indication that the pathogenic N. fowleri evolved from the nonpathogenic Naegleria lovaniensis on the American continent. There is no evidence of virulence differences between the types of N. fowleri. Two other Naegleria spp. are pathogenic for mice, but human infections due to these two other Naegleria spp. are not known.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.



Naegleria /nɛˈɡlɪəriə/ is a free living amoebae protist genus consisting of 47 described species often found in warm aquatic environments as well as soil habitats worldwide.[1] It has three life cycle forms: the amoeboid stage, the cyst stage, and the flagellated stage, and has been routinely studied for its ease in change from amoeboid to flagellated stages.[1] The Naegleria genera became famous when Naegleria fowleri, a human pathogenic strain and the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), was discovered in 1965.[1] Most species in the genus, however, are non pathogenic.[1]


Life cycles

Naegleria has 3 different life cycle stages: amoebae, cyst, and flagellate.

The amoebae stage is the feeding stage and has blunt pseudopodia (lobopodia) that give the cell an overall irregular, yet generally cylindrical shape.[2] The overall size is usually around 10–20 um at this stage. The pseudopodia are actin based extensions of the body and form at irregular regions of the cell.[2] Movement occurs in this stage via extending the pseudopodia, and having the cytoplasmic internal contents follow subsequently.[2] As the feeding stage of the organism, pseudopodia are also used to engulf prey, such as bacteria.[2] This is also the stage that the organism spends the most time in, and also the reproductive phase.[1] Reproduction occurs here by binary fission and it can reproduce every 1.6 hours on a bacterial diet.[1] Reproductive division involves promitosis, or intranuclear mitosis, which does not occur with nuclear envelope breakdown.[1] Sexual reproduction has not been observed in this genus but the genes for meiosis do exist in the genome.[1]

The cyst stage is a double walled spherical stage.[9] The double wall consists of a thick endocyst and a thin endocyst.[9] The cyst contains usually 2-8 pores (often depending on the species) and is formed when conditions become adverse, such as residing in non optimal temperature.[9] Cysts are favourable as they are naturally resistant to environmental hardships.[9] When adverse conditions are restored to normal, the organism can escape the cyst through the pores in its amoeboid form.[9] Cysts have been observed to be formed in all but one species where the ability to form a cyst is inhibited by a bacterial parasite.[9]

The flagellate stage consists of two flagella which are induced by de novo assembly of a primarily microtubule cytoskeleton from a former actin based cytoskeleton (from the amoeboid form).[6] The microtubule skeleton is prominent along with the development of basal bodies.[2] The entire flagellar structure consists of 200 proteins.[2] Division of the organism does not occur in this life stage, although two species have been found to divide as an exception.[2] There is no cytostome (feeding groove) present suggesting that feeding occurs primarily in the amoeboid stage via phagocytosis.[2] There is a single nucleus which is near the flagellar root.[2] The flagellated stage is typically encountered when the genus needs to move to a more desirable location, which is often encountered when conditions are not optimal.[2] Therefore, this flagellated stage is transient and the organism usually reverts to the amoeboid form within an hour, with transformation taking about 100 minutes.[2] The reversion to the amoeboid form can be induced by changes in ionic concentration of the water it resides in (such as placing it in distilled water);[2] during which transformation the cell disassembles its microtubules.[10] Notably, five species have never been observed in this flagellate life stage.[2]


Survival seems to rely on timing and skill of area doctors

the skill part is an ability to treat

As the errors in the system compound from lack of leadership directing management

you will see these issues compounding

I expect this to flourish and grow as a life form

I leave you with the Bing

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